脱サラゲイの海外生活 -ワーキングホリデーから海外移住を目指して-トロント、ハワイ編






Neurological System

Your Body Your Health III

Kapiolani Community College のMassage Therapy Programより。

 Cerebral Vascular Accident (CVA) 脳血管障害

Stroke. Brain Attack. Any part of the brain can get injured.

2 types

  1. Occlusion or thrombosis
  2. Hemorrhage, ie. aneurysm

Thrombosis stroke is easier to treat than a Hemorrhage one.

 Thrombosis stroke = infarct 血栓性脳卒中

Need a CAT scan to determine if it is caused by clot. 3-4 hour window to get blood clot dissolved. tPA is administered intravenously to dissolve clot. 0-3 hours to full recovery.

 No two people will have exactly the same problems. Dizzyness, difficulty with speech. Conversation changes. Symptoms to one side of body. Numbness, tingling, weakness, facial drooping. Cannot see out of one eye.

 Transient Ischemic Accident (TIA)一過性脳虚血発作

False stroke. Pathologies. All the symptoms but no clot or hemorrhage. 24 hours to full recovery. A sign that the person can get a stroke in the near future. Will get a battery of tests to determine factors.

一過性脳虚血発作(TIA)とは梗塞と同じ症状が一時的に起こって短時間で消失するものです。 2日以内に本格的な梗塞を起こす可能が高い危険な発作です。 原因に応じた適切な治療を早期に開始すれば、脳卒中発作を防ぐことも可能です。 症状が消えても軽視せず、直ちに専門の医療機関を受診することが大切です。


 Strokes are hereditary. High blood pressure is the leading cause. Damage to the brain can cause a multitude of problems. Right side of the brain affects the left side. Massage is indicated. Massage to either spastic or flaccid muscles. Slow sustaining strokes on a stretch to help regain normal function.

 Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) 外傷性脳損傷

Central Nervous System Trauma. Any time the brain hits against the skull

Contusions. Hemorrhages, etc.

 Concussions 脳震盪

Unconscious after a blow to the head. Blow severe enough to cut off oxygen to the brain. Can’ t tell what is wrong. Dangerous when it occurs. Needs to be monitored. Physically can take care themselves. Thought processes are usually damaged. Cognitive, aggressive, short-tempered. Logical thinking processes may get affected. May seem schizophrenic or paranoid.

脳震盪とは、頭部に外力が加わった結果生じる、一過性の意識障害、記憶障害をいいます(意識障害は必ずしも意識消失とはならず、意識の変調もある)。 この障害は可逆的(元に戻る)なものであって、脳の器質的な損傷(脳自体の損傷)は原則として伴いません。


 Seizure = convulsions 痙攣

Sudden brain waves stimulation

Grand mal けいれん大発作

Unconscious with rapid muscle contractions. Extreme convulsions.

 Petit mal 欠神発作

More common. Brain wave contractions. Will become oblivious to the world. Staring into space. Eyes roll up. Know the signs so you know if they are asleep or having a seizure.

欠神発作は短時間(通常20 秒未満)で、突然の発症と終結をみる全身性てんかん発作である。 欠神発作を起こしている人のそばにいても、他の人は発作を認識しないこともしばしばある。 発症頻度が最も高いのは子どもで、4歳~12歳の間に最初のエピソードが起こる。


 Tumors 腫瘍

Even benign tumors can cause problems when they compress the brain because there is no space available in the skull. Neurological-Physiological Disease. Brain tumors are not always removed because can’ t tell what effect it is having on the brain. Usually removed with radiation treatment.

 Dementia 痴呆

Decreased brain processes. Degenerative disorder. Usually in the 70-80s. Don’ t want to change routines. Memory problems leads to daily dysfunction in taking care of self. Short term memory loss is immediate.

痴呆症は、75歳以上の方の10%、85歳以上では20%~25%に発症します。痴呆症は、一度獲得した知能が、後天的に脳や身体疾患を原因として慢性的に低下をきたした状態で、社会生活、家庭生活に影響を及ぼす状態と定義されています。痴呆症をきたす疾患としては、アルツハイマー痴呆が40数パーセントと最も多く、これに脳血管性痴呆が30数パーセントで、この二つをあわせて、痴呆症の80% を占めています。痴呆症の約10%に、ホルモン異常やうつ病、中毒、正常圧水頭症、慢性硬膜下血腫といった早期に治療すれば治る可能性のある可逆性の痴呆が含まれています。他の10%はピック病やびまん性レビー小体病(DLB)等の比較的稀な痴呆症です。


 Alzheimers アルツハイマー

Biggest form of Dementia. Only can be confirmed in an autopsy. Plaque growing in the brain. Could have low vitamin B. Metabolism of drugs slows down. Physical mobility decreases. Neurological function decreases.



 Younger people are getting dementia. Due to “ ice”  (crystal meth)(覚せい剤) It blows holes in the brain by eating away at the brain tissue. This causes dementia. Massage is not contraindicated but cautioned. Massage only with a witness in the room.

 Schizophrenia 統合失調症

Depression. Neurological problems due to chemical imbalance. Causes psychological problem. Depression most common in 70+ years old and teens.

統合失調症は、幻覚や妄想という症状が特徴的な精神疾患です。それに伴って、人々と交流しながら家庭や社会で生活を営む機能が障害を受け(生活の障害)、「感覚・思考・行動が病気のために歪んでいる」ことを自分で振り返って考えることが難しくなりやすい(病識の障害)、という特徴を併せもっています。多くの精神疾患と同じように慢性の経過をたどりやすく、その間に幻覚や妄想が強くなる急性期が出現します。新しい薬の開発と心理社会的ケアの進歩により、初発患者のほぼ半数は、完全かつ長期的な回復を期待できるようになりました(WHO 2001)。


 Schizophrenia is more dangerous. Thought processes can be way off. Out of touch with reality. Do not massage when they are not on medication. Massage will help them feel better by releasing endorphins. Need a witness in the room.

 Spinal Cord Injury = SCI 脊椎損傷

Anything below site injury has no innervation, so no function. Damage is usually permanent At C3-4 can still breath, At C-1, instant death.

 #1 cause is trauma, #2 cause is infections or toxins. Temporary if it is just bruising or swelling. -plegia= paralysis, no functioning use at all. -paresis = weakness with some minute nerve contractions/connections.

 Quadraplegia – all 4 extremities don’ t work

Paraplegia –  lower half don’ t work

Hemiplegia –  one side doesn't work (right or left)

 Massage is NOT contraindicated. Massage muscles on the spastic side. Massage to relax muscles before stretching. Most of them still have feelings in the affected extremities. Many of them are very manipulative with psychological problems. No two spinal cord injury patients are alike.

Quadraplegics - you would need help to move them.

Hemiplegics usually from strokes.

 Entrapment(閉じ込め) and Compression(圧縮)

Entrapping or compressing a nerve. Pinching of a nerve will cause problems for the muscle it innervates. Nerve Root Compression. Compression of the nerve root as it comes out of the vertebral column. Could be the disk between vertebrae gets smaller.

 Stenosis 狭窄

The opening is getting smaller, usually by bone growing to fill the opening. Muscles between vertebrae may get tighter and pinch down on nerve.

Disk Herniation 椎間板ヘルニア

Disk is compressed to one side causing bulging on the other side. #1 reason for nerve compression. Usually occurs in the lumbar region. May either affect the nerve on the bulging side or the compressed side. Herniation or bulging is not a “ slipped disc”. Can rupture if not taken care of.

椎間板ヘルニアとは、背骨の腰部の椎骨と椎骨の間でクッションの役割を果たしている軟骨(椎間板)が変性し、組織の一部が飛びだすことをいいます(ヘルニア=何かが飛びだすこと)。 このとき、飛びだした椎間板の一部が付近にある神経を圧迫し、腰や足に激しい痛みやしびれなどの症状を起こします。


 Pinching in the cervical plexus (神経、血管、リンパ管の網状組織)causes weakness and pain in the neck, shoulder and arms. In some ways carpal tunnel syndrome is and entrapment. Entrapment = impingment = compression. Need to find out what’ s causing it. Ice and massage will help reduce tension and remove fluids from an area. Stretching can help. Just looking to relieve the muscle that is impinging.

 Neuropathy 神経障害

Inflammation or degeneration. Neuralgia =Non-inflammatory. Neuritis=Inflammation. Something affecting the peripheral nerve(抹消神経) Down an extremity. Numbness, tingling, shooting or throbbing pain. Muscle innervated by that nerve will lose function. Common among diabetics in Hawaii.

 Shooting pain---> Numbing and tingling---> Muscle gets weak---> Lose sensation.

 Massage helps move fluids, increase circulation due to lack of muscle contractions. Caution - no sensation so no feedback on pressure. Check the extremity with sensation to figure out how much pressure to use.


 Vertigo めまい

“ The room is spinning”  or “ their body is spinning”.

Nausea はきけ

Very dangerous for them to move. Usually caused by inner ear infection or high blood sugar levels. Medication for motion sickness may help.

 Manier’ s syndrome メニエール病

7days straight with severe symptoms

メニエール病メニエールびょう、英語: Ménière's disease)は、激しい回転性のめまいと難聴・耳鳴り・耳閉感の4症状が同時に重なる症状を繰り返す内耳の疾患である。


 Massage can help or hurt, plan needs to be carefully worked out. Massage effects are only temporary.

 Bells Palsy ベル麻痺

Similar to a stroke but temporary. Caused by infection by a virus. Affects only one side of the face (Cranial Nerve VII). Face droops, lose feeling. Lose taste. Eyes drying out is the main problem. Have to wait it out and then work it back up. Facial massage will help stimulate the area.



 Guillain-Barre Syndrome ギラン・バレー症候群

Caused by infection. Attacks the myelin sheath around each neuron. Temporary-regain full strength after 6 months. Some people have permanent damage. Starts with face. Can affect upper body, ankles, calves.

ギランバレー症候群ギランバレーしょうこうぐん、英: Guillain-Barré syndrome、以下GBSと記する)は、急性・多発性の根神経炎の一つで、主に筋肉を動かす運動神経が障害され、四肢に力が入らなくなる病気である。重症の場合、中枢神経障害性[要出典]呼吸不全を来し、この場合には一時的に気管切開や人工呼吸器を要するが、予後はそれほど悪くない。日本では厚生労働省の治療研究(難治性疾患克服研究事業)の対象となっているが、医療給付(難病医療費助成制度)の対象ではない。


 Massage is indicated. Can take away pain. Relieve tightness in muscles.

 Multiple Sclerosis 多発性硬化症

Autoimmune condition. Affects 20-50 year olds. Cold climates are more susceptible. Inflammation and deterioration of the myelin sheath. Lose muscle function due to nerve conduction loss.

 Tiredness, chronic fatigue, headaches---> Loss of coordination---> Lose muscle function---> Paraplegic---> Quadraplegic---> Respiratory distress---> Last thing to go is the mouth and the ability to talk.

 Massage won’ t do any damage. Need to take into consideration positioning. Head and neck needs to be in a position that won’ t cut off breathing.





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